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Many theories exist on the development of haemorrhoidal disease: according to one of them, haemorrhoids are similar to varicose veins (theory of vascular hyperplasia), while according to another one haemorrhoid onset is due to the fact that ano-rectal mucosa becomes redundant and slides down. Many factors contribute to the development of "pathological" haemorrhoidal cushions.

The occurrence of these alterations may be facilitated by the following factors:

* Family history;

* Environmental factors:

- Constipation;

- Abnormal straining upon defecation;

- Low-fibre diet;

- Obesity;

- Sedentary lifestyle;

* Other factors:

- Deterioration of the supporting connective tissue;

- Pregnancy; - Related diseases.


Stages of the disease

Haemorrhoid classification is based on a clinical examination, which is extremely important to choose the most appropriate treatment.

Classification (Goligher scale)



Haemorrhoids may protrude during straining, but they are not prolapsed. They can be seen during proctoscopy.

1st degree

The prolapse can be seen on the anal verge during straining, and it reduces spontaneously after defecation.

2nd degree

The prolapse can be manually reduced.

3rd degree

The prolapse cannot be reduced.

4th degree

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